The Rwandan perspective on tax liability and tax avoidance

By Esther Muhozi
On 17 October 2023 at 11:21

In the world of finance and taxation, the term "tax avoidance" has garnered significant attention. It refers to the use of legitimate and legal methods by individuals and businesses to reduce the amount of Income Tax they owe to the government.

Tax avoidance is not the same as tax evasion, which involves illegal practices such as underreporting income and falsifying deductions.

Is tax avoidance legal?

The simple and unequivocal answer to this question is yes. Tax avoidance is a legal way for individuals and businesses to lower their tax burden. It relies on a careful understanding and utilization of tax credits, deductions, exclusions, and loopholes that are explicitly permitted by the tax code. Corporations often employ various legal strategies to reduce their tax liabilities, including offshoring profits, utilizing accelerated depreciation, and taking deductions for employee stock options.

However, it is crucial to note that tax avoidance can cross into the realm of illegality when individuals or businesses deliberately disregard tax laws that apply to them. Engaging in such practices can result in severe consequences, including fines, penalties, levies, and even legal actions.

Most people would relate Tax avoidance to Tax Evasion but these two are different. Take a look at their differences.

Distinguishing tax avoidance from tax evasion

To better understand the concept, it’s essential to distinguish between tax avoidance and tax evasion.

Tax Avoidance: As mentioned earlier, tax avoidance is a legal strategy employed to minimize tax obligations. It involves using legitimate avenues provided by the tax code to either reduce tax liability or potentially eliminate it entirely. However, if these strategies are abused, and taxpayers do not adhere to tax laws, their actions may be considered illegal.

Tax Evasion: Tax evasion is the deliberate act of failing to comply with tax laws. This involves evading the assessment and payment of taxes through illegal means, such as hiding income, offshoring income to non-compliant jurisdictions, falsifying tax records, or inflating expenses. Engaging in tax evasion can lead to severe legal consequences, including fines, penalties, levies, and even prosecution.

The Rwandan Perspective on Tax Liability

Tax laws vary from one country to another, and understanding a country’s specific regulations is vital. In Rwanda, for instance, tax liability is determined based on residency.

According to Article 4 of Law Nº 027/2022 of 20/10/2022 establishing taxes on income, an individual is considered a resident in Rwanda if they meet one of the following conditions:

1. They have a permanent residence in Rwanda.

2. They have a habitual abode in Rwanda.

3. They are a Rwandan representing Rwanda abroad.

4. They are present in Rwanda for a period or periods amounting to 183 days or more during the tax period.

5. They are present in Rwanda during the tax period of assessment and have been present for periods averaging more than 122 days in each of the two preceding tax periods.

Mitigating tax avoidance in Rwanda

Rwanda’s tax laws are designed to minimize the possibility of tax avoidance, particularly by focusing on residency requirements. Points 4 and 5, in particular, aim to ensure that individuals cannot easily avoid tax obligations by staying in the country for a short period to escape tax liability.

To be considered a resident in Rwanda, an individual must fulfill one of the criteria mentioned in Article 4, and the combination of points 4 and 5 reinforces the government’s stance on tax compliance. The requirement that an individual must be present in Rwanda for periods averaging more than 122 days in each of the two preceding tax periods ensures that tax avoiders have limited opportunities to escape their tax responsibilities.

In essence, this approach is intended to make tax avoidance less attractive and financially impractical. Taxpayers who attempt to exploit the system by strategically staying in the country for shorter periods are likely to find it economically viable, as their calculations will inevitably fall within the parameters set by the law. The cost of avoiding tax may well exceed the amount they would have paid in taxes, thereby rendering such efforts futile.

Summing lep tax avoidance, when employed legally and within the confines of tax laws, is an acceptable way for individuals and businesses to reduce their tax liabilities.

However, governments, including Rwanda, have implemented measures to prevent tax avoidance by focusing on residency requirements, making it difficult for individuals to evade their tax obligations by manipulating their presence in the country. It is essential for taxpayers to understand and adhere to their respective tax laws to avoid legal consequences.

Traders using electronic invoicing system are cautioned against tax evasion.