Behind success of Rwanda’s Liberation struggle: ’Principle of inclusion’

By Christine Nyinawumwami Umutoni
On 4 July 2021 at 11:05

On 15th May 2021, I sat on the balcony at Assamala’s apartment with other ladies she had invited for “coffee” which ended up being drinks and dinner. An idea was born! Or rather, a story was born, this story. Our hostess looked at me and said, “how are you feeling Christine?” I am ok, I said; it’s just that we don’t get used to these things. I had just finished a zoom event on the commemoration of the Genocide against the Tutsi-KWIBUKA 27.

We had rushed to her house as it was drizzling. We wore our long black and grey Mishanana (traditional attire for ladies), I was with Honorraille Iradukunda (Mimi), a young student who was the co- MC for the commemoration event.

At dinner, we discussed many things and chatted throughout the evening; the ladies asked me many questions about the Genocide, specifically about the suffering of the widows and orphans, the brutal killings of Tutsi. And Mimi asked, how did the Genocide and the war end? How were the survivors saved?

I thought about it; these are chapters of a book or titles of many books! I stood up to grab a glass of water in the sitting room and when I looked at the bookshelf, I saw a book with Assamala’s name. And I asked;

  • Do you write? She answered yes.
  • Oh wow! I must come for lessons! How do you write a book? We made a rendezvous.

A few weeks later, I was at her house, only the two of us for another cup of coffee to talk about writing.

  • Why do you want to write? What do you want to write about? Tell me a little bit about yourself, what is your story? My Hostess asked.

You sometimes start by writing articles, small stories, poems, and later books. She added.

I am not sure of what I want to write about, I said. But for now, it is not about my story, it is probably about history. I would like to simply share what I saw, heard, and experienced in the past as it relates to my country, Rwanda.

But tell me a little bit about yourself, Assamala insisted. Well it is a typical story of any person you would ask from my generation. I am one of those who grew up as a refugee, struggled to finish primary school because of lack of school fees, eventually went to secondary school through a scholarship, almost did not go for higher education, because I had no citizenship papers, and almost got out of law school because I felt I did not belong.

I was stateless. After my first year at university, my parents were sent to a refugee camp again, so I spent the holidays at campus as I could not go home. I was accommodated by the university warden for a whole year, I did not know that my parents had been sent to Kyaka II refugee settlement. This is how I joined student welfare groups, then the Rwanda refugee’s welfare foundation (RRWF) and later the Rwanda Patriotic Front (RPF). I joined the struggle to liberate Rwanda and to find a homeland.

Women were among 600 RPA soldiers deployed at the parliamentary building.
  • At such a young age what made you join the struggle? She asked.

Well, I had too many unanswered questions in my mind? I replied. I felt discriminated and suffocated by society and stressed by what was happening in my country of asylum. It is difficult to explain that feeling, some sort of anger which one cannot define.

At that moment I turned to her and asked, what motivates you to write? What do you write about? And she answered, I love to write fiction, sometimes I write poems. I write about many things.

She showed me one of her poems:

“Tired of all

The can’ts, don’ts,

Mustn’ts and shouldn’ts.

Tired of being murdered,

Tired of being mistakes,

Tired of justice denied,

So damn tired…

The kind of tired that

Doesn’t let you breathe.

And yet

We still have to fight,

Write, shout, protest,

Because it is

The kind of tired that

Doesn’t let you

Rest in peace,

Because the flowers

Are running with tears

And the tree trunks

Are dripping with blood.

You see,

That kind of tired…”

I looked into her eyes and I asked:

  • How did you know? Know what? She also asked. And I replied, your poem says it all.

That is the reason why many men and women, boys and girls joined the liberation struggle en masse. It was because of That kind of tired!!

So, you mean the Rwandan liberation struggle had fathers and mothers? Men and women, boys, and girls? Tell me about it. Many times, we hear of the men in struggles, but I have not read a lot about the women, she said.

Oh yes! The Rwandan liberation struggle had fathers and mothers, I told her. In-fact there is a Rwandan song which reminds me of that.

It is called “Girubuntu”, it goes ….

Basore n’inkumi kurugamba, mu ntambara y’inkundura,

batere inkunga barihuta, ngaho nawe bafashe urugendo

Gir’ubuntu nawe girubuntu,

Mu mashyamba no mu bishanga, hari inyota n’inzara ndende,

imbeho nyinshi yo mu birunga, mbe bavandimwe muri hehe

Gir’ubuntu nawe gir’ubuntu, girubuntu nyakugiribintu, gir’ubuntu ndakwinginze, gir’ubuntu wagiriwe ubuntu

A song by a women’s cultural group in Brussels- ISAMAZA; praising the boys and girls in the liberation struggle, explaining how they suffered in the cold, were hungry and thirsty. It was also a fundraising song, calling everyone to support and raise money for the struggle.

Rtd captain Daphrosa Intaramirwa is among soldiers who fought the liberation struggle.
  • So, tell me more about the ‘mothers’ of the struggle, Assamala asked.

Oh well the song itself was composed by Isamaza cultural group by women, one of the many that existed in different parts of the world. I remember that the ‘mothers’ of the struggle participated in many ways, for example:

1.Our grandmothers and mothers

In all countries of exile where Rwandans lived, they never forgot their language and culture. Grandmothers and mothers ensured that the different generations, maintained their core values. Most people spoke Kinyarwanda, danced traditional dances, sang Kinyarwanda songs, and benefited from the many stories by grandmothers and mothers. There were many stories and legends told about great women in history, like the queen mothers that ruled with the King, charismatic women like Ndabaga and many more.

2.Women leaders and members of cultural groups

One thing that kept the fire burning and moral high was music and dance through cultural groups like Isamaza, Imitali, Amaliza, Amarebe, Amaraba, Nyampinga, Indahemuka, Imanzi and many more. These played a major role of mobilization, fundraising, political education and reinforcement of culture and Rwandan values.

There were individual women singers like Annonciata Kamaliza, Mariya Yohana Mukankuranga, Cecile Kayirebwa, Florida Uwera, Suzana Nyiranyamibwa and many others that kept the cultural fire burning and sometimes gave political messages and education. Music and dance played a major role in keeping the moral of the soldiers and civilians. It reinforced political education and keeping a positive spirit during the liberation struggle.

3.Women members of RPF and women mobilisers

The liberation struggle did not start in 1990. It started in 1979 by RANU which later changed to RPF in 1987. There was a long period of mobilization: the armed struggle which started in 1990 was the last resort (code named the “Z” option). The liberation struggle was a mass movement and all Rwandan men and women joined in big numbers. Women were members of RPF at all levels in the structures of the organization; they contributed ideas and funds, they were political organizers and educators, mass mobilisers, and fundraisers. At times political education happened locally within the different cells or groupings in Rwandan communities and other times mobilisers went to different countries to recruit and mobilize.

Many women contributed money, especially those who were working, some organized fundraisings within their communities, while others went from country to country looking for funds. Playing the song GIRUBUNTU, GIRUBUNTU, GIRUBUNTU WAGIRIWE UBUNTU. Women worked a lot in diplomacy and public relations informing the outside world why there was a Rwandan liberation struggle. Explaining the cause and looking for allies and supporters for the movement. Women worked in information and communication and supported peace negotiations in Kinihira, Ngondore and in Arusha peace talks.

Within the women members of RPF and mobilisers, were a special group, the wives of soldiers. Special because, these are tough women who participated in all activities of the liberation struggle while their husbands were in the army. They fcared for their families and contributed to resources that fed their husbands and other soldiers at the front.

Families were split, and it was always tough to imagine how you look your husband in the eyes and say goodbye, without knowing if you will ever see each other again.

We heard of those who said goodbye in silence with simply a big, firm hug. The husband would not say that he is going to the front to fight and the wife would never tell him that she knows where he is going. The BIG hug and silence were just a way to tell each other, I know, and I will be fine.

Some of them never got a chance to say goodbye. Most of them were newly married and barely finished their honeymoon, some were left pregnant or with babies. In spite all this, they moved on to care for their families and support the struggle. As you can imagine, some of them never got to see their husbands again, as they died in the struggle. Bless them!

There were two songs by Kamaliza which explained the emotions very well.


Naraye ndose inzozi nziza, naraye ndabutswe umwana nkunda,

Ni urwererane, rwizihiye amaso,

Yambonekeye, arampumuriza,

Ndamukumbuyeeee, umwana nkunda,

Hashiziminsi, tutabonana…

(favorite for husbands at the front who left wives behind, dreams of a loved ones)

And another song..


Uraho se ngab’ikeye uraho, ikenya ababisha, uraho,

Uraho se ngab’ikeye uraho, uraho ntare batinya, uraho…

Njya nicara nkigunga nkibuka agacu kawe,

Nakwibuka intego yatumye ushiguka,

Intwari bavugira ibigwi kereka acyuye intego…

Nyabus’aho ndi hose sinkwibagirwa,

Mpora nsaba Iyaduhanze ngo iguhe amahoro,

Nabo wasize bose bafashe iryiburyo

(favorite for wives as they longed to see their husbands, heros, liberating their country)

4.Women in “Region O” (inside Rwanda- non liberated zones).

These were the courageous women who operated inside Rwanda in the zones that were not yet liberated. They were members or sympathizers of RPF. The worked in very risky circumstances, behind enemy lines. They did clandestine mobilization, fundraising, information, research, and intelligence. They played liaison between “Region O” and the front line. Some of them visited the RPF headquarters in Mulindi regularly, risking their lives.

It is impossible to understand how they did it, knowing that the enemy intelligence systems were alert and that RPF members and sympathizers were the first targets.

Indeed, some of them were imprisoned or killed and of course the majority perished during the Genocide against the Tutsi. May their souls Rest In Peace!

5.Women at the frontline and in the bush

Some women at the frontline and in the bush were soldiers within the ranks of the RPA, they were fighters. Some of them died in action. Bless their Souls!

Women went to the frontline and some died; they did different things, including combat. Many women in exile got the patriotic call for the love of their country. Normally they say that women have no strength, but they survived the bush, climbed high mountains, stayed in the swamps and even went hungry ( Ingabo news paper N.114, July 2004 ).

Among liberators there were women who sacrificed a lot, they had the will, the courage and the patriotism to sacrifice their life and fight for the liberation of Rwanda. They were not scared of the cold, hunger in the mountains and all the hardships, they participated in the medical field, in mass communication, in ‘Radio Muhabura’, in logistics and political education… (Ingabo news paper N.114, July 2004)

Women soldiers, like their fellow men comrades, in addition to fighting, they served also in other capacities in the army, including as nurses, doctors, journalists in media, information, communications… Women worked in logistics, training, production and in welfare supporting the wounded soldiers, displaced people, orphans and other vulnerable groups within the liberated zones. At some point they had a special unit of women called YANKEE mobile.

Each of these roles could fit a chapter, or a book on their own. Women nurses and doctors have stories to tell. How they worked in tough conditions, assisted in surgery in a bush and managed sick bay, with basic means and equipment. The communications team has stories on how one runs and operates a radio (Muhabura) in the bush and how they carried typewriters on mobile writing press releases and other press news.

Those in the welfare department, have many stories on how a force of men and women wounded and disabled at war could be re-mobilized into a very productive force, doing all sorts of works, like carpentry, tailoring, computer studies. This force raised money to support the liberation struggle and also learnt important skills for the future.

Other women in the bush were civilians, working alongside the army within the ranks of RPF, supporting and taking up all tasks mentioned above plus diplomacy, peace negotiations, production, finance, administration and logistics, etc.

Yes, the RPF/RPA stopped the genocide against the Tutsi and liberated the country.
Yes, the liberation struggle had fathers and mothers!

Yes, the mothers, the women and girls played an important role during the liberation struggle. They continued to do their part during the country’s reconstruction and are now very active in the development journey of Rwanda.

This song by Indahemuka crowns it all


Impundu impundu, impundu babyeyi, impundu nizanyu tubatezeho byinshi

Bategarugoli bari b’u Rwanda nimwe dukesha uru rubyiruko………

Dufite uruhare runini cyane rwo guharanira u rwatubyaye, no kujijura iyi mbaga nziza mu muco mwiza wa Kinyarwanda………

Ni muze twese dutsinde umwanzi wadindije amajyambere yu Rwanda……

Loosely translated, “KUDOs to women and girls for your role in the struggle for liberation, you have a role to educate the masses about our cultures and values. Let us all defeat the forces of backwardness”.

I was talking to one of the women RPF members who operated in Region O, discussing all this. She reminded me that when you have a clear cause and good leadership, you will succeed in any struggle. She also made a very sound statement:

  • “Our leaders led the country while bleeding, they led us while healing and are now leading us to prosperity…”

To the men and women, mothers, and father of the struggle:

ALLUTA CONTINUA! VICTORIA E CERTA! Together, towards prosperity!

Happy liberation day. #KWIBOHORA27


The many questions asked, cannot be answered in one article, this is just a teaser, a call for more women to write books. To narrate their experiences, tell the different roles they played and what all this experience means to them, to the young generation and to the country.