1.UN Security Council amended UNAMIR mandate and withdrew some of its troops from Rwanda
On April 21, 1994, the UN Security Council adopted a resolution of 912 amending the UNAMIR mandate and leaving it with only 250 troops. However, General Dallaire who led UNAMIR sent a daily report to the United Nations on the killings of Tutsis in Rwanda. He claimed that the Habyarimana guards and the Interahamwe militia had become like a "virus" which was spreading quickly. The UN, which did not value the information from Dallaire, decided to abandon Rwanda and the killings continued on daylight.
2.Tutsis killed in Murambi, Gikongoro, Nyamagabe
When the genocide started around Murambi area, local Tutsis and those from Mudasomwa, Kinyamakara, Musebeya, Muko and other communes started to seek refuge at Murambi.
Those who fled to Murambi were told by their authorities that they would be able to keep their security while they are together but it was a lie because the former president of criminal government SINDIKUBWABO Theodore together with his Prime minister Jean KAMBANDA had visited Gikongoro and instructed people to start genocide.
It was after the meeting that the authorities encouraged the Tutsis to flee to Murambi, lying to them that they would be kept safe. Those who had fled to various communal and church offices and those who had been hidden by the Hutus were taken to Murambi by car or brought by others.
Everywhere they passed on the way to Murambi, they were stoned by the Interahamwe. When they arrived in Murambi, Interahamwe started to cut off all water pipes supplying Murambi so that they get weakened by thirsty before they can be killed.
They decided to slaughter their cows after realizing that they were starving to death. Gendarmes told them to count themselves so that they can request for sustenance and later on were given some rice but it wasn’t sufficient due to their big number of up to fifty thousand (50,000).
In the following days, Interahamwe would attack them and they fought back with stones and Interahamwe would go back. In the dawn of April 20 towards 21, 1994 around 3 am gendarmes started firing grenades and shooting on Tutsi refugees. Interahamwe, CDR supporters and civilians carrying clubs, machetes, spears and axes started to finish off those who were not killed with gunshots and the wounded.
Those who participated in the killing of more than 50,000 who had taken refuge at Murambi were the former Prefect of Gikongoro Prefecture BUCYIBARUTA Laurent (lives in France), SEMAKWAVU Felicien, the former Bourgmestre of Nyamagabe Commune, Captain Faustin SEBUHURA who led Gikongoro Gendarmery, Colonel SIMBA Aloys, Justin AYURUGARI, who was in charge of Electrogaz Gikongoro, Venuste NYOMBAYIRE (in charge of SOS Gikongoro Children’s Center), David KARANGWA the registrar in Gikongoro Court, Celse SEMIGABO the prosecutor in Gikongoro, Alphonse NSENGUMUKIZA (worked in Electrogaz), gendarms and interahamwe including MUNYANGOGA, Musekura Aloys, Ngirumpatse Venuste and others.
Murambi was also the campsite of French military in the “Zone Turquoise” where they claimed to have come to protect the Tutsis who were being killed but that did not happen because a few Tutsis who had survived went to Murambi but were kidnapped and killed by the Interahamwe and the French soldiers did nothing about it.
Some French soldiers raped Tutsi girls and women and committed various other crimes, according to a report by “Mucyo commission”. At the end of their mission, they asked people who were in Murambi camp to cross over to Congo and assured them that they would help them return to Rwanda. Interahamwe escorted them to Congo with many other refugees because they were told that Inkotanyi would kill them but the purpose was to help killers take them as hostages for when they would arrive in the Congolese jungles. Murambi genocide memorial is a home for more than 50,000 Tutsi genocide victims who were killed there and those exhumed from Gasaka memorial.
3.Tutsi massacre in Cyanika Catholic parish, Nyamagabe
This Parish has a special history for the Tutsi because in 1963 there was a massacre of Tutsis who lived there and it was reported in the international reports and in the media that it was genocide. All Rwandans called it a bloodbath.
From 1990-1994 the Tutsis who lived in Cyanika were again persecuted under the leadership of Bourgmestre of Karama Commune Desire NGEZAHAYO. They were called Inkotanyi accomplices as it happened in 1963 by calling them accomplices of the cockroaches (Inyenzi) and imprisoning others.
Refugees from Karama, Kinyamakara, Nyamagabe, Rukondo, Karambo and other communes were gathered at the Parish and were welcomed by Father Joseph NIYOMUGABO and many arrived on April 8,1994.
The reason many fled was that Bourgmestre NGEZAHAYO and the councillors toured the entire commune and demanded that those hiding to come at the parish using loudspeakers pretending to protect them at the parish.
On April 11,1994, the sous prefect of Karaba sous prefecture Yozefu NTEGEYINTWARI held a meeting with the Bourgmestre of Rukondo, Karama and Kinyamakara communes at Cyanika football ground (Murizo) to polish their plan to kill Tutsis.
In addition, there was also a terrorist group called MINUAR commanded by NTAGANIRA Emmanuel also called Muturage and Rubera who received arms from Col. Simba and handed them over to people. The group was in charge of killing Tutsis and to reinforce where the killing was slow because they were using grenades especially interahamwe called Kazungu.
In the night of April 20 to 21 Tutsis who had taken refuge in Murambi were killed and the killers headed to Cyanika on April 21, 1994 at around 10 am and started to kill refugees who had taken refuge at the parish where they used grenades and traditional weapons. More than 35,000 Tutsis were killed and they are buried in Cyanika Genocide memorial.
Those who participated in the planning and killing of Tutsis who had taken refuge at Cyanika Catholic Parish were led by the former prefect of Gikongoro Laurent BUCYIBARUTA, Col SIMBA Aloys, sous prefet Yozefu NTEGEYINTWARI, Bourgmestre NGEZAHAYO Desire, MP Marc HANYURWIMFURA, MUNYANDINDA Joel inspector of primary school of Rukondo commune, NKURIKIYIMANA Jean Bosco director of Cyanika health Centre, Charles UGIRINDEGE (Deputy Bourgmestre of Rukondo), his brother in-law SEBAKIGA Jean Bosco also called Kinigamazi (veterinary of Karama commune), MUNYANEZA Jean Bosco, MPAKANIYE Frodouard former mobiliser of Karama commune, Jean Baptiste KAYIGAMBA who worked at the Cyanika Health Center, GAHAMANYI Callixte - a businessman, councillors including MUNYANKINDI Callixte, BASHIMUBWABO Jean Baptiste, MURINDABABISHA - the Director of GS Cyanika, HISHAMUNDA Charles youth mobiliser in Gikongoro, GATARI Jean Damascene (Agronomist), GASHARA Alphonse - a teacher in Mbazi, NZUNGIZE Azaria - a secretary in Karaba sous prefecture, KAREKEZI Kizito a student at the University and a player of Mukura, MAGEZA Onesphore - Rukondo police officer, MUDENGE Juvenal (reservist), Police officers: HABIMANA and MUNYANEZA Sipiriyane and some cell and sector leaders of Cyanika, Kibingo, Gitega, Ngoma, Muganza, Kiraro, Kiyumba and Nyanzoga.
Interahamwe who took part in killing Tutsis of Cyanika were : DEMOKARASI Joseph a.k.a Rubera, ULINZWENIMANA Etienne a.k.a Kazungu, NTAGANIRA Emmanuel a.k.a Muturage, NKURIZA Anastase a.k.a Serufirira, KABERA Vianney and his elder brother GASURIRA, NIZEYIMANA Athanase a.k.a Musebeya, MUSONI Anselme, MUGAMBIRA Apollinaire, BIZIMANA a.k.a Munyu, KARAMIRA Maurice, KAYIHURA Joseph, MUGENGA Joseph, MUBIRIGI Zakariya, RWAMAKUZA Cyriaque, RUDAHANWA Telesifore, BUKEYE Alfonsi, MUTAJUGIRE Francois a.k.a Rupajyama, MIYERI, NAMBAJE Alfonsi, Aloyizi SEKAGANDA son of Ntwarabashi, RUTEBUKA Martin, RWAGASANA Venant, BIZIMANA a.k.a Nderema, MUHAYA son of Mishogoro, Dominiko son of Busizori, RUKARA Mariko, SENYANA son of Butuyu and others.
4.Tutsis killed at Catholic Church Parish Kaduha, Nyamagabe
Kaduha Parish is located in the former Karambo commune, Kaduha sous prefecture Gikongoro prefecture. Tutsis who had taken refuge there came from Muko, Musange, Karambo and Musebeya communes. They started to arrive on April 8, 1994. On April 17, 1994 a gendarm took away their traditional weapons saying that they are already protected
Before that date, refugees were sharing what they had brought from their homes and a German Sister MILGHITA who led the Health Center prepared porridge for children. The priests had sufficient rice but starved refugees because there was a Burundian priest Nyandwi Athanase Robert, who was one of the organizers of the killing plot.
On April 20, 1994 the priest asked them to buy the rice at 5 Rwandan francs per kilo and he knew they were going to kill them shortly. They used the money they had to buy the rice and finished it all.
On April 21,1994 an extensive attack of gendarmes, reservists, and interahamwe with various weapons from the communes of Muko, Karambo, Musange, Musebeya took place. They first surrounded refugees and then killed around 45,000 Tutsis at Kaduha parish. Only a few of them survived.
The killings were motivated and led by intellectuals including Father Nyandwi Robert, Sous prefet Joachim Hategekimana, PDAG project staff called Katasi famous for his assassination in Kaduha. Ngezahayo Straton a former soldier, Karangwa François a court staff, a soldier named Gerivasi, Kayihura, Albert Bourgmestre of Muko commune, Interahamwe called Rukokoma, Ntawera, Matabaro, along with other Interahamwe as well as students from Ruhengeri who had taken refuge there.
All of them were led by gendarmes from Gikongoro on April 8/4/1994 under the command of Colonel SIMBA Aloys who was in charge of the so-called civil defence in Gikongoro and Butare.
Currently, the death toll at the Kaduha Genocide Memorial has risen to 47,311. Survivors in the area continued to be killed as Kaduha was in a French-controlled area called “Zone Turquoise” and that prevented the RPF-Inkotanyi from saving them in due time.
5.Tutsis killed at various places in Ntongwe Commune, Ruhango
From April 18 to 20, 1994 some Tutsis who went to the mountains and tried to defend themselves. Some of the mountains included Nyiranduga where a large gathering of Tutsis from Gisali, Kibanda, Mbuye, Mukinga (in the former Mugina Commune), where they spent four (4) days fighting the attacks and defeated them. Afterwards, the former Bourgmestre of Ntongwe commune Kagabo Charles and the sous prefet of Ruhango sous prefecture called Placide Koroni and the gendarms, told Tutsis to go to the Commune for easy protection but it was a plan to kill them at once.
Another hill from which Tutsis tried to resist against Interahamwe attacks was the Gacuriro ya Nyakabungo hill, but they were removed by Bourgmestre Kagabo lied to them that they will be protected at the commune and that they should go there. It was on April 19,1994.
Ntungamo ya Kayenzi in Nyabitare is also another mountain on which Tutsis tried to fight back interahamwe. They used spear, bows and especially stones and other Interahamwe attacks from Nyakabungo and Ntongwe sector came and spread Tutsis where some continued to Tambwe and Ruhango and others were killed slowly.
b.Killing of Tutsi at the former Ntongwe commune office
Tutsis started to flee to Ntongwe commune office from April 10,1994 because Hutus had started to burn their houses, to kill them and slaughter their cows. At some hills Tutsis started to defend themselves but the former Bourgmestre Kagabo Charles and the sous prefet Placide Koroni through sectoral councillors sent them to the Commune lying to them that their security will be ensured there. The last Tutsis who arrived at the Commune on April 19 and 20, 1994 even those who were hiding elsewhere joined.
From April 17 to 19, 1994 the Tutsis who had taken refuge in the Commune first defended themselves to their best with stones and repelled the attacks until April 20, 1994. The more authorities gathered Tutsis at Ntongwe commune, the more they also gathered killers: interahamwe from Bugesera, Burundians from Nyagahama camp, people and gendarms from Nyanza.
They all gathered at Ntongwe Commune on the night of April 20, 1994 to April 21, 1994 and attacked the Tutsis and destroyed them. The attack was planned at a meeting held in Mutima between April 17 and 19, 1994 led by gendarmes including Bourgmestre Kagabo and Burundian refugees.
They crossed Gako instead of Nyakabungo so that the Tutsis could not hear the noise of the car and flee, when they reached Mutima, they stopped their cars and walked by foot under Kagabo’s command.
On the night of April 20 to 21, 1994, all the attacks met at the commune. Soldiers and police officers shot in the cloud, threw grenades and those who tried to escape were waited by killers with machetes and other traditional weapons the killing was very systematic and well planned.
c.The massacre of Tutsis in the valley of Nyamakumba
The killings took place on 21/04/1994. Nyamukumba is at 2 km from the Ntongwe Commune office on the way to Ruhango. It is a place where there is a huge valley. The place was named “the apocalypse of Tutsis” due to a huge number of Tutsis who got killed there after escaping from grenades, bullets and machetes from the attack at the commune.
Cruelly, the soldiers installed guns on the hills around Nyamukumba, so that wherever you flee to they will be watching you because it is a big valley surrounded by hills, those who were not killed at the Commune were turned into that valley and other escape ways were all closed.
The Interahamwe dominated by Burundians at the shops of kinazi, at Nyagahama there was also other Burundians, Interahamwe from Bugesera, soldiers and gendarmes fired at them and turned them into Nyamukumba valley. When they all arrived at Nyamukumba, those in the mountains who were ready to shoot them, fired at once, then Interahamwe with machetes, clubs and spears finished off the survivors of gunshots. There was a lot of crying and a lot of people died. The place was given the name of “Imperuka ya Nyamukumba” slightly translated as “apocalypse of Nyamukumba”.
d.Massacre of Tutsi at CND in Rutabo
The so-called CND pit was excavated in 1992 and was located behind the Primary School of Rutabo A. Many Tutsis were killed and dumped in the pit even those killed elsewhere were brought at the pit. The place was named after the CND of Kigali where the RPF forces who came to protect the RPF leaders lived. In other words, to take the Tutsis there to kill them was to meet their so-called relatives in CND Kigali.
The attack on that pit was led by NSABIMANA Jacques who led CDR in Ntongwe known as Pilate because any one who was going to be killed on that CND pit was first tortured by him.
Some of the most prominent names in the massacre were Kagabo Charles who was the Bourgmestre of Ntongwe Commune, Placide Koroni who was the sous prefet of Ruhango sous prefecture, Councillors who governed all 13 sectors of Ntongwe Commune, Soldiers like Hitabatuma, Rucyeragabiro of Nyabusinzu at Kamugunga, Visenti from Birara Vianney also from Nyabusinzu, ... a citizen named Ntintanguranwa who burned a baby on the charcoal stove at Gishari of Kareba, Kareba Councilor Kanyandekwe Zefaniya and Kageruka Aristarque, Teacher Nsabimana Jacques (nicknamed Pilate), a businessman called Simoni Munyentama and his elder brother from Kareba, Nahayo Florent, unknown Burundians who lived in Nyagahama camp; these grilled and ate hearts of killed Tutsis.
6.Massacre of Tutsis at Karama catholic church, Runyinya, Huye
On April 08, 1994, Tutsi refugees started arriving in Karama. They came from Ramba and Gikongoro prefecture to Karama parish. Once they arrived, they were exhausted, hungry, traumatised and some of them seriously injured.
On April 10, 1994, HATEGEKIMANA Deogratias, the former Bourgmestre, invited all Hutu concillors, all Hutu dignitaries, including the Director of the APAREC Secondary School and Businessmen, to the Genocide Preparation meeting. No Tutsi was allowed to attend it because by the time the meeting was held, two roadblocks were established, one at the commune courtyard, and the other at the center where they were controlled by police. SERUTWA Damien who led Umuyange cell was denied entry because he was a Tutsi.
On April 11, 1994, Bourgmestre Hategekimana Deogratias took a policeman named GATITIBA Thomas on a commune motorcycle to Ramba and ordered Tutsi refugees to go to Karama. Many refugees arrived that day, including many wounded. Father Ngomirakiza Francois took the critically injured to the University Hospital in Butare and at the same time he was seeking help to assist a large number of refugees in Karama.
From April 14 to 16, 1994 Tutsi houses were set on fire in all the areas around Karama and started on the same day: Nyarusange-Mukongoro-Kibingo-Buhoro-Bunazi-Uwarugondo ... all refugees gathered at Karama church, in classes, at the market had come from Gikongoro and Butare Communes: Runyinya, Rwamiko, Mubuga, Kinyamakara, Huye (Muyogoro), Maraba, Mudasomwa, Nyakizu (Rusenge), Kivu. They were all counted and classified according to their Sector.
On April 16, 1994, the first Tutsi in Karama, was called Myandagara was killed at a bar in Kibingo. On April 18, 1994 the Bourgmestre and the police took a treasurer of a cooperative called KOPIARU to show them the keys to the coffre fort and immediately killed him.
The killers cut a water pipe and poured pesticides into the Agatenga River to kill the refugees with thirsty. Bourgmestre Hategekimana Deo brought gendarmes who were born in Karama including Twagirumukiza Charles they brought bullets and guns and Bourgmestre slaughtered a cow for them and lied to Tutsis that gendarms had come to protect them.
On April 20, 1994, the gendarmes led by RWASAMANZI and KIMASA, who worked in APAREC project went to Bunazi to kill Tutsis who had taken refuge there with grenades. Survivors came and joined others in Karama. That night Father Ngomirakiza told refugees that there was no refuge at the parish, and those who tried to flee were returned at Rugondo’s roadblock while stoning them.
On April 21, 1994, a large number of Hutus carrying clubs and machetes entered the refugee camp. Around 9 am, many attacks of interahamwe wearing dried banana leaves and surrounded the camp and killed them. They then took the children who had survived the massacre and put them together, cooked porridge for them but they had poured poison (acid) in the porridge and then gave them to them and all kids died. Bodies of about 70,000 Tutsis are buried at the Karama Genocide Memorial.
7.Tutsis massacred at Gashinge hill, Kamonyi
Gashinge is a hill located in Gasharu Village, Nyamirembe Cell, Karama Sector, Kamonyi District but in the past it was located in Kayenzi Commune which was governed by MBARUBUKEYE John.
On April 19, 1994, Tutsis fled to the Gashinge hill from Nyabikenke, Rutobwe, Musasa, Taba communes and elsewhere. They were attacked on April 19, 1994, by Hutus from their communes. The Tutsis defended themselves using stones and defeated them, and the attackers decided to cut down banana plantations and the forest in that area.
On April 21, 1994, a major attack took place comprising of soldiers, police, and civilians, led by Buyumbu, who also led the Bibare attacks. In order to exterminate Tutsi, they first used grenades, guns and interahamwe used other weapons including machetes, small hoe, sharp sticks, axes, spears and more. The killings started in the early morning and finished in the afternoon. Survivors and others who were taken from their homes were taken to Nyabarongo and others were gathered and taken to Nyamirembe sector ground called CND.
8.Tutsis massacred in Cyakabiri, Rutobwe, Gitarama, Muhanga
Cyakabiri is located in Kigarama cell, Cyeza sector, Muhanga district. This is a well-known place in the area due to the heavy roadblock at which about a hundred Tutsis were killed. This was because Cyakabiri connected Kayumbu and Cyeza and hence they had to kill Tutsis who fled to Kabgayi from Rutobwe, Nyabikenke, Kayenzi and Rukoma.
The roadblock was set up on April 14, 1994, as the massacre in Rutobwe started on April 13, but most people were killed at the roadblock on April 21,1994 even though before and after Tutsis continued to be killed there until RPF stopped killing in the area.
Those killed were thrown in the nearby pit called CND after being killed brutally, tortured with traditional weapons wooden clubs with nails called “Nta mpongano y’umwanzi”, sickles, sharp sticks, machetes and others. Generally, Tutsis in that area were heartlessly killed by cutting off their body parts like ears, heels, slowly and they return to kill them gradually. Another specialty in the area is that Tutsis were poisoned, the killers took a traditional pesticide diluted it in bottles and made tutsi drink it saying that they should drink milk as they love it!
The perpetrators of the massacre included the former Minister of Youth and Associations NZABONIMANA Callixte who was at the forefront of the Rutobwe massacre. He was using his “Kombe” car on which he mounted speakers and mobilised people while going to his home in Nyakabanda commune, urging the Hutus that their enemy is a Tutsi. NZABONIMANA also brought many machetes in the car, which he distributed to citizens on the road.
In addition, he also had grenades which he gave to few people who knew how to use them. There were others like SEROMBA Barthazar who was the MDR secretary in the Commune, MUVUZAMPAMA - MDR vice president, MPARABANYI, AYIDINI, DUSABE, KAMPAYANA, HARINDIKIJE and others.
After the genocide, the bodies were exhumed from Cyakabiri pit and buried in the Kayumbu memorial which include 428 bodies from Rutobwe. The memorial is built in Kayumbu sector in Kamonyi District.
9.Tutsis killed in Tumba Sector (Mpare and Musange), Huye
Mpare is currently located in Tumba Sector of the former Huye Commune. As the genocide commenced in the area, all people had joined efforts and went to Muyogoro to avert the killers from Nyaruguru. On April 20, 1994, Bourgmestre Ruremesha Jonathan who governed Huye commune, born in Mpare, held a meeting for Hutu people only after expelling the Tutsis.
On April 21, 1994, all the Hutus set fire to Tutsis homes, and immediately started killing, looting and destroying their houses. Soldiers, gendarmes and civilians joined in the massacre of Tutsis. Soldiers and gendarmes went to the top of the hill (Nganzagihendo) and shoot at the Tutsis who were gathered. The Tutsis killed were from Musange, Mpare, Vumbi, Gishamvu, and Nyaruguru. More than 11,000 were killed.
At the forefront of planning and implementing the Genocide are Bourgmestre RUREMESHA Jonathan and MP BANYANGIRIKI Zacharie (born in Mpare). He held a meeting in Kabuga to urge Hutus to kill Tutsis, where he openly said: "The enemy we are fighting is a Tutsi wherever he is".
The killers involved were HARINDINTWARI Theogene who went to Butare town to fetch the fuel to burn Tutsis homes. He got it from Ntahobari Maurice. BUYENGE Charles who was the Concillors of Musange sector, Nzabahimana Vianney who was the Concillors of Mpare Sector, Hangimana Chrisostome who fled to Zambia, Bungurubwenge Augustin escaped from prison and fled to South Africa, Mondi Mazuru was a driver in the DGB project who fled to Malawi and others.
10.Tutsis massacred at Gishubi, Gisagara
The Gishubi Sector during the Genocide was led by Councilor Ugirashebuja Francois who also led the killings in collaboration with his colleague Ndayishimiye Augustin, the Councilor of Nyaranzi Sector sharing borders. Genocide Preparatory Meetings were held in Gabiro at the home of Innocent Mukurarinda, the accountant of Kibayi commune.
Renowned for killing Tutsis are:
Ugirashebuja Francois, the councillor of Gishubi Sector, Mukurarinda Innocent who fled to Uganda, Police Officer Ubarijoro Gaspard who shot many Tutsis, Nkurikiyinka Viateur who was nicknamed MDR, Ntahobavukira Jerome, Matene of Rubayi, Yoboka Anasthase, Munyagandwi Anasthase, Ndekezi Augustin, Nyandwi Francois, Rwamakuba, Bugirimfura Visenti, Semicaca, Kabandana Jean Bosco, Nyirishema Saveri, Ugaragaye Emmanuel, Shyirambere Francois nicknamed Nyabarongo, Mwumvaneza Alexandre – a teacher, Ngwenyerezi Vianey, Rukundo son of Njogori, Niyongira Bonaventure a police officer, Mbanzwirikeba Cassien who was a soldier, Ruzindana son of Nzirumbanje who fled to South Africa, Rugira Emmanuel sentenced to life imprisonment but escaped from the prison and fled to Europe, Havugimana Anatole a student at the university but he died, Rutebuka Alexandre mobiliser at Muganza commune, Munyagandwi Venuste who pleaded guilty and his sentence was reduced, he also provided extra information on the Genocide, Burundians from the family of Mushatsi who shot many Tutsis using bows. Among them, there were Karuhije, Macumi, Sekimonyo, Muhitira, Ndururutse and they returned to Burundi.
On April 20, 1994, they spent the whole night burning down Tutsi houses and started killing them on April 21, 1994. The Tutsis killed in Gishubi were local residents and others from elsewhere including from Ndora, Musha, Gikongoro ... they were killed in huge numbers on Thursday April 21, 1994 and they were finished off on Friday April 22, 1994. After that they continued to kill the Tutsis in Musha on Saturday April 23, 1994 and then continued in Kabuye. More than 2,000 Tutsis were killed in and around Gishubi Sector.
At each road junction, roadblocks were set up: at the Sector office, there were two at the center in Gabiro, at Busave, at Gafita, at Gatare, at Muswa, at Zanwe on the road to Kigozi, at Mbonwa and at Bitare.
Gishubi is exceptional because no Tutsi survived there. A local Tutsis whom they could not find among the corpses, they went to hunt him down in other Sectors bordering Gishubi until they find and kill him and returned. The one who survived is the one who managed to get out of the sector and flee elsewhere.
11. Tutsis massacred in Musha, Mugusa commune, Gisagara
The genocide planning meetings were held at the IGA building, chaired by MRND President Muramba Augustin. It was attended by Kanyabikari Telesphore, Ngango Viateur, Mukasangwa Alice, Sekamana Jean Marie Vianney, Muzigirwa Francois, Muhozi Bernard and others.
The massacre of many Tutsis took place at Musha Business Center, at Cyayi Sector, Murama and Musha Health Center.
At the forefront of the killings were Kabayiza, the Bourgmestre of Mugusa Commune, Ngango Viateur, the Councilor of Musha Sector, Muramba Augustin, the inspector of primary schools, Kanyabikari Telesphore, the Director of primary school. There were also police officers including Gasasira, Panueri and Emmanuel Nsanzimana. There was also Sibomana Ignace who led the attacks and Habyarimana Stanislas who controlled the roadblocks at the Musha center.
12.Massacre of Tutsis at various places in Butare Town, Huye
On April 19, 1994, Theodore Sindikubwabo, who was the President of the so called “Abatabazi” Government convened a meeting in the conference hall of Butare Prefecture. All prefecture authorities of different administrative levels were invited and given instructions to start conducting Genocide. They were instructed to kill all Tutsis and that any person who opposes or tries to save Tutsis would be killed as well.
The meeting started with an announcement to remove Dr. Jean Baptiste Habyarimana, who was a Tutsi, from the leadership of Butare Prefecture, and was replaced by Nsabimana Sylvain. On 20th April 1994, the new prefet immediately called a meeting of all district mayors and laid out the genocide plan. The same say all sector leaders had meetings with cell leaders on the same agenda. In all these meetings no Tutsi was allowed to attend, even if he would be part of the leadership.
In Butare town many Tutsis were killed at the Prefecture headquarters, at the Butare hospital (Currently CHUB, the University Hospital of Butare), at the military school (ESSO), in Arboretum forest, within the Rwanda National University, in SORWAL (the match boxes factory), in EAV Kabutare, in Groupe Scolaire Officiel de Butare, in the forest around Caraès Butare, in the museum forest, at Ngoma catholic parish, at Matyazo health center, at Cyarwa; a place called Gateme and on different roadblocks that were set up at Faucon, at the University, at Mukoni, in front of residences of Ntahobari Maurice and Nyiramasuhuko Paulina, in front of Bihira Juvenal building, at the upper side of the National Museum, in Rwabuye, etc.
Tutsis who had fled at the Groupe Scolaire Officiel de Butare started getting killed on 21st April 1994. They were killed by many Interahamwe militia together with soldiers. The same day the Tutsis at the National University of Rwanda were also killed.
Many of Hutu lectures and professors helped killers to identify their Tutsi colleagues. Many of Hutu lectures and students of the university were stationed on roadblocks at Mukoni and at Sebukangaga. Some Tutsis who could survive a day were being surrounded at the Prefecture headquarters, at the Anglican Church and at the Butare hospital (CHUB).
At the hospital they have been set up a tent in front of dermatology and podiatry services. At night, some would be killed and in the morning at around 9 am the truck would come to carry the bodies of killed Tutsis to be disposed.
Tutsis arrived at the Butare prefecture headquarters on April 19, 1994 and they were being killed while women would be raped every day. Every night a car would come to pick those to be killed and the car was always supervised by Arsene Shalom Ntahobari, Nyiramasuhuko Paulina, Joseph Kanyabashi, Jumapili and Nsengiyumva. The massacre was overall led by the Prefet Nsabimana, gendarms and soldiers.
Nyiramasuhuko went to EAR and ordered all refugees to be removed there as they were dirty in the town. She used a loudspeaker and called on all Hutu community residents to cut the bushes and remove dirty from town. All Tutsi refugees left to seek refuge at the Prefecture headquarters but they eventually suffered there.
Later, authorities brought buses without chairs and took all Tutsi refugees, on Kanyabashi orders, and they were taken to a place called Nyange, but killers escorted the buses carrying weapons and went to kill them at Kibirizi. Very few who survived were brought back at the prefecture. Later again, the authorities came to clean the city and took the few survived Tutsis at Rango and lived a terrible life there until RPF soldiers arrived and saved them.
On 30th April 1994, Tutsis who had fled at Ngoma Parish were killed.
Some who were leading the killings in Butare town include bourgoumestre Kanyabashi Joseph, Munyagasheke Isaac and his son Désiré Munyaneza, Ntahobari Arsene Shalom, Nyiramasuhuko Pauline, Ntiruhanwe Jean, Kayibanda Jules Nkiko, Amandin Rugira Pacifique, Karabaranga Isaie, Murangwa Innocent, Emmanuel Setakwe, Jacques Habimana who was the Ngoma sector counselor and others. There were also soldiers and Burundi refugees.
The following are the places in Butare town where many Tutsis were killed on 21st April 1994:
•At Butare Prefecture Headquarters: Many Tutsis from various places were gathered there (those from Kigali, Nyaruguru, Gikongoro, Butare, Karama…). At the prefecture Tutsis suffered with hunger and thirsty, women were raped, and every time a car would come to pick some to be taken for killing. It is said that they were being killed at Kabutare and at Mukoni. Later, buses without chairs came and took Tutsis to be killed at Nyange of Kibirizi and at Gateme in Cyarwa.
•In the University Hospital of Butare (CHUB): there was an extreme genocide, apart from Tutsi patients, patient assistants, and doctors & nurses, a number of other Tutsis took refuge there including seriously wounded ones that needed treatment.
Those who were refugees were built a tent and gathered there. Others were put within dermatology and surgical rooms and others in from of the morgue. Every morning at 9 am, a blue Daihatsu truck would come and pick dead bodies of Tutsis who had been killed and went to dispose them. Seriously wounded people would suffer with no assistance. Many would be taken to ESSO and in IRST forest. Others would be taken by authorities at the Prefecture headquarters. They would be killed by soldiers, Burundi refugees and Interahamwe from Butare town.
• At EAR Butare: Tutsis were killed by hunger and thirsty. No one was there to give them anything. Nyiramasuhuko came and spoke through a loud speaker and called on killers to remove dirty from EAR. They removed them and beat all the way to the Prefecture Headquarters, then packed them in cars and went to kill them. They were taken to Nyange of Kibirizi and Interahamwe killed them there.
•In Arboretum forest and in the National University of Rwanda: Genocide here was so excessive. The university was surrounded by heavy roadblocks. One was at the front of Sebukangaga, another at Mukoni. So may Tutsis were killed at the university, in Arboretum forest and on the above mentioned roadblocks. Tutsi students, teachers/lecturers, university staff and Tutsi refugees were all killed there. A special operation was conducted to find out all the Tutsis who were hiding in the Arboretum forest. The killers made one big line and moved step by step to ensure all hiding Tutsis were found out and all were captured and killed.
•In EAV Kabutare: there was also excessive genocide at this place. Students who were studying there and those who were brought there from Groupe Scolaire de la Salle, Byumba, which was a war zone, all were killed on the order of the school director, who was the son of Gitera Joseph Habyarimana, the founder of APROSOMA, and the one who introduced the 10 Hutu commandments in 1959. In this school there is a genocide memorial with students and teachers killed there and buried in dignity.
•In IPRC (ESSO): During the Genocide, government soldiers who were injured from the war were brought there and found others. At ESSO, Tutsis were brought and killed and women were raped and then killed.
13.Tutsis who were massacred at Rugango Parish, Huye
At Rugango, Tutsis started seeking refuge on Sunday 17th April 1994 in the afternoon. They were coming from Maraba commune. On Monday, the following day, all those from the hills of Rugango Parish started also seeking refuge at the parish. They started living in the workshop area and in classes. Many others had fled to Gihindamuyaga monastery, and they camped in what they called “camp des jeunes”, others had fled to Sovu at the health center of Benedict sisters.
Tutsis who had taken refuge at Rugango parish were massacred on 21st April 1994 in the morning, from around 8 am. Killers were led by Rekeraho Emmanuel who also led other attacks that killed Tutsis in the communes of Maraba, Mbazi, Huye and Ruhashya.
14.Massacre of Tutsis at Kibirizi, Gisagara
Many Tutsis who were from the former Nyaruhengeri commune fled to the commune headquarters ordered by bourgoumestre Kabeza Charles, and they were killed in the night of 21st April 1994. Victims were tortured while women were raped and after got killed. They were asked to dig pits in which they would be thrown after getting killed. Others were thrown live in the deep toilet pits, and so on.
Sector councillors would use loud speakers that peace had been restored to ensure the hiding Tutsis come out. And once they come they would be killed. Dogs were used to hunt and discover Tutsis who were hiding in bushes.
Roadblocks were at: At “Ku Giti cy’umukiza”, there was a roadblock led by a female called Jacqueline, a sister to Gapiri; In Bashingwa, there was a roadblock controlled by ladies including Mukamuganga, Musanganire, Furaha, and Dusabe…At a place called “Mu Mbeho” there was a roadblock led by Karambizi Alphonse; At Nyaruhengeri sector, there was a roadblock led by Rucyahana Nicodeme.
The head killers included: Kabeza Charles, who was the Bourgoumestre of Nyaruhengeri Commune; Mujyarugamba Pascal, who was commune brigadier; Ruberabahizi Venuste, the commune agronomist; Nsabumukunzi Faustin, the councilor of Kibirizi sector; Hakizayezu Augustin, Sematama Gaspard, who came from Kansi to kill at Kibirizi, Kavamahanga Charles, Musonera Barthazar, Habyarimana Noheri, Munyashyaka Francois, etc.
Genocide against the Tutsis was planned and implemented by the Government. The fact that Tutsis were killed from the morning of April 7, 1994 across the country, it is undeniable that it was a government’s planned agenda.
Done at Kigali on April 21, 2020
Dr. BIZIMANA Jean Damascène
National Commission for the Fight Against Genocide (CNLG)